SMS Usage Statistics 2022

SMS is known to offer many advantages over other communication tools for businesses, such as cost-effectiveness, accessibility, and extensive reach. A review of key statistics, however, helped us to reveal the true and real-world efficacy of SMS campaigns. In this analysis, we explore the effectiveness of SMS communications in today’s world, highlighting the role SMS plays in customer engagement, conversions, and consumer preferences, as well as its growing relevance in fostering stronger customer relationships.

Unparalleled reach

About 7.33 billion people – which makes up 93% of the global population as of March 2023 – use mobile phones, with 97% connected by mobile networks such as 2G, 3G and 4G. In contrast, only 60% of the world population regularly accesses the Internet, making channels like email and apps like WhatsApp less effective for reaching the masses. SMS messages have a high engagement rate, with most consumers responding within three minutes and nearly 90% replying within 30 minutes. This prompt response shows the effectiveness of SMS as a communication tool for reaching people quickly.

Click-throughs and conversions

SMS marketing boasts high click-through rates (CTR), leading to impressive conversion rates. According to Postscript, abandoned cart messages for inexpensive recurring purchases like coffee can achieve a CTR as high as 20% via SMS, while keyword opt-in messages register a 25-38% CTR.

A Klaviyo survey revealed that nearly 3 in 4 consumers have made a purchase because of an SMS text from a brand, with half of the respondents reporting this happened 2-3 times. 24% of respondents admitted they were not considering a purchase until the text message inspired them to do so. These statistics underscore the significant impact of SMS marketing on consumer behavior and conversions.

Fostering two-way interaction

SMS proves to be an engaging marketing communication channel, as people enjoy responding to businesses that send them text messages. Gartner reports that around 45% of people reply to SMS messages, compared to just 6% for emails. About 55% of people use built-in default SMS apps instead of third-party messaging options, making them more likely to engage with businesses via SMS.

Over 45% of respondents value two-way conversations and find the ability to text businesses back useful, according to a Simpletexting survey. This shows the growing preference for SMS as an interactive medium, nurturing stronger connections between businesses and consumers.

CRM and brand loyalty

SMS communication is a popular method for people to stay connected with their favorite brands. A Cloudli Communications survey found that over 80% of respondents across all generations wanted to text their preferred brands and businesses. Klaviyo’s survey reveals the most preferred SMS messages from brands revolve around delivery confirmations (51%), shipment confirmations (46%), and birthday deals (36%).

Nearly two-thirds of consumers would switch to a company offering text messaging as a communication channel, according to a survey commissioned by Avochato. The study found that 60% of respondents would rather schedule hair care appointments via text, 65% prefer financial services that communicate account details, bills, and payment reminders through SMS, and 72% would choose a travel company that provides travel plans, reminders, and updates via text.

These statistics highlight the growing preference for SMS-based customer communication in enabling businesses to build stronger customer relationships.

SMS: Growth and future prospects

SMS continues to grow in popularity and relevance. Juniper Research predicts that 3.5 trillion business application-to-person (A2P) messages will be delivered by 2023. Postscript notes that the most successful brands send a minimum of five texts per month to every subscriber on their list, further emphasizing the importance of SMS in modern communication strategies.

SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway enables brands to send up to 240 messages per minute, effectively meeting customer expectations for prompt communication. This powerful marketing automation tool ensures personalization and simplifies the sending process, allowing businesses to maintain strong connections with their audience while maximizing the benefits of SMS marketing.

Curious to explore further? We have compiled additional resources worth exploring.

Create the right solution for your operation

Your obstacles are unique, and the solutions for them should be too. The functions of SMSEagle allow critical operations units to incorporate SMS communications into their systems in a way that makes sense to them. To find out how SMSEagle will allow you to create the solution you need, get in touch with our team.

How to Setup Status Alerts for UPS Device

Today, reliable power supply is a key element in ensuring the continuity of operation of many devices. Without uninterrupted power supply, many companies, institutions, and private users would not be able to function. Therefore, more and more people decide to purchase a device that will provide them with uninterrupted power – Uninterruptible Power Supply, or UPS.

However, owning a UPS is one thing, and monitoring its status is a completely different matter. So, how to set up status alerts for UPS?  There are three basic ways to read the status from a UPS:

  • Dry Contact
  • SNMP Signals
  • Email alerts

Dry Contact

Dry Contact is an output on UPS device where the device sends a signal to an external system (e.g. an alarm system, control center, SMS gateway) when the power switches from the electric grid to the UPS (or reversed). The signal is usually a simple state change from an open to a closed circuit on the dry contact. The state change allows for quick notification of the power outage, but an external system is required to process the signal.

SNMP Monitoring and SNMP Traps

The second method is SNMP monitoring or SNMP traps. The SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) protocol allows monitoring of various network devices. If a UPS device is equipped with SNMP capability, you can monitor its state via external monitoring software (for example Network Monitoring System). With SNMP monitoring an external system periodically polls the UPS device about its status. SNMP traps, on the other hand, allow the UPS to send SNMP information to the system whenever its status change. The UPS device must be equipped with Network Interface Card (NIC) to take advantage of SNMP monitoring of SNMP traps.

Email Alerts

The last method is Email alerts. In this case, the UPS sends an email notification about the status change. Usually, you configure an SMTP server on your UPS device management portal/software, and this server is used then to send emails from a UPS device to a mailbox of your choice. The UPS device must be equipped with Network Interface Card (NIC) to use Email alerts.

How To Ensure Quick And Effective Reaction to Failures?

However, no matter which method is used, to further facilitate the critical information about power outage from UPS it should be received by a response team in a fast and reliable way. This will assure that the information will not be lost or stuck among many other status updates in IT infrastructure. The critical information from the UPS device might be managed within a Network Monitoring System (NMS). Another interesting and easy alternative is to use a hardware SMS gateway. SMS guarantees instant deliverability and offers a channel that is accessible to everyone. Thanks to the integration of the hardware SMS gateway with the UPS, the administrator can receive a notification in the form of an SMS when the UPS is turned off/on or when its status changes.

SMSEagle is an example of a hardware SMS gateway that offers fast integration with uninterruptible power supply devices (UPS). The integration with SMSEagle can be easily made via:

APC UPS users can also use the thoroughly described SMS integration manual for APC UPS.

Create the right solution for your business!

The functions of SMSEagle allows businesses to incorporate SMS communications into their systems in a way that makes sense to them. To find out how, get in touch with our team.

SMSEagle Anniversary Promotion

In honor of our 10-year anniversary, we would like to take a moment to THANK YOU ALL for your continued support. It has been an incredible 10 years! Without you, we would not be where we are today.

As a thank you, we have a couple of special promotions available so that you can celebrate with us!

1. Storewide Discount
Starting February 13th, for the next 10 days, we will be discounting our products storewide by 10%*! Use voucher code 10YEARS to apply the discount.
*Discount does not stack with other discounts

2. Gift Card Giveaway5x 200USD & 10x 50USD Amazon gift cards

  • Beginning on Monday, February 13th at 12pm CEST – To enter our contest, post a picture of your SMSEagle device on Facebook or LinkedIn
  • The picture has to show an SMSEagle device, where it’s being used (server room or even a desktop) or alternatively, a picture of SMSEagle logo at your place of business
  • Make sure to tag SMSEagle in your post or use hashtag #smseagle10yrs
  • Winners will be selected on February 23rd and announced on February 24th

SMSEagle Gift Giveaway Official Rules

Join us between the 13th and 23rd of February as we celebrate this milestone and take advantage of amazing offers!

Radosław Janowski, CEO and Product Manager of SMSEagle

“In the coming years, we will continue to invest in the development of our platform and expand our services to better meet the needs of our customers. We are confident that the next decade will be even more exciting, and we look forward to continuing our journey with you.”

Improve Healthcare Communications with SMS Solutions for Hospitals & Clinics

From hospitals to clinics, healthcare institutions are on the front lines of protecting citizens and communities across the globe. The need for accessible healthcare continues to be prioritised, with governments going a long way to ensure patients have seamless access to the doctors, facilities and care they require. A tougher challenge, however, resides in the microeconomics of these institutions and facilities, where ineffective communications continues to plague both patients and health workers alike. As we speak, thousands of appointments are being made over physical helpdesks and calls – appointment management alone remains a manual process requiring tedious direct telephone work.

Unlike dedicated apps or telephone calls, SMS provides healthcare institutions with a seamless medium to communicate with patients. By utilizing SMS communications solutions integrated with existing patient management systems and databases, healthcare institutions can automate patient engagement and reachout activities. Not only is SMS accessible across all types of handsets, it also requires absolutely no patient training and produces greater response rates than external apps or patient helplines.

Problem of missed appointments

The statistics for missed appointments are not positive. For example, in Poland there were 19,500 “empty” visits to specialists in year 2022 just in in the West Pomeranian province (an area with a population of 1.7 million people). These “empty” appointments occur in cardiology, endocrinology, orthopedics, ophthalmology specialists and even in family doctors. Missed appointments simply means longer queue to specialists and family doctors. It can also have a significant impact on operating profits by under-utilising doctors and medical facilities. These missed appointments affect also the capacity of healthcare institutions to develop and deliver new patient services to their existing customer base.

SMS is the simplest solution to use

With SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway, hospitals and clinics can send SMS messages to patients reminding them of their upcoming appointments. Patients can then reply to the SMS message to cancel their appointment if necessary. This saves time and resources for both the patient and the hospital or clinic. SMSEagle device provides a web-based graphical user interface (GUI) that allows hospitals and clinics to easily integrate it into their existing workflows. The GUI simplifies the process of creating and sending messages, making it quick and easy for staff to use. The SMSEagle GUI also allows hospitals and clinics to manage their messages in real-time. They can monitor message delivery and track responses, ensuring that patients receive the information they need when they need it.

Easy integration into existing appointment systems (optional)

By integrating the SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway via API or Emai to SMS with appointment scheduling applications, patients can effectively manage their appointments by sending SMS requests to cancel existing appointments or even change the appointment date. These requests are then automatically updated in appointment systems without the need for human intervention. Likewise, healthcare institutions can easily contact and remind patients of upcoming appointments, minimizing the number of missed appointments. Together, this allows for a faster allocation of appointment slots and better utilization of healthcare resources.

Keeping patients in the loop

SMS is not just for proactive patient management – hospitals and clinics can leverage it to keep patients and former patients updated on new services and facilities, ensuring that they are kept in the loop of the latest healthcare advancements while expanding their own reach and influence. Likewise, by connecting patient databases with the SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway, institutions can easily spread the word when there is a vaccine rollout or new doctor in town. They can then follow up with this by pushing proactively for appointments.

Healthy patient communications

Using SMS messaging to communicate with patients takes the cost and complexities out of appointment scheduling, patient management and reachout campaigns. SMSEagle’s latest partnership with Nexus Polska, for example, greatly automates the transmitting of healthcare information between doctors, patients and other healthcare workers. With seamless integration and nearly no additional staff training required, SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway is the perfect low-cost, high-impact solution for your patient communication needs.

Create the right solution for your operation

Your obstacles are unique, and the solutions for them should be too. The functions of SMSEagle allow critical operations units to incorporate SMS communications into their systems in a way that makes sense to them. To find out how SMSEagle will allow you to create the solution you need, get in touch with our team.

SMSEagle Celebrates its 10 Year Anniversary!

We are excited to announce that SMSEagle brand will be celebrating its 10th Anniversary between February 13th and 23rd 2023! 🎉🎉🎉 It has been an incredible journey and we are very proud of what we have achieved. We couldn’t have made it this far without the support and loyalty of our customers, and we want to thank you for being a part of our journey.

Stay tuned for special anniversary discounts, a chance to win Amazon gift cards, and other exciting surprises 🎁🎁🎁🎁. Keep an eye out for details on our social media and blog!

So, mark your calendars and save the date!  Join us from February 13th as we celebrate this milestone and take advantage of amazing offers!

SMSEagle Team

Order Management Systems: Adding SMS to the Cart

This holiday season, shopper footfall has reached an all-time high – whether it’s Cyber Monday or Panic Saturday, stores have been inundated with year-end orders and last-minute holiday purchases.

As such, order management systems that support this kind of retail activity have never been more crucial, especially with e-commerce overtaking in-person sales. Merchants need to be able to communicate with customers across multiple touchpoints, and at every phase of the order lifecycle. From placing an order and issuing invoices, to fulfilling delivery and sending billing reminders, keeping customers in the loop not only reduces the risk of dispute, missed deliveries and non-payment, but also improves ease of fulfilment and customer satisfaction.

Efficient customer notifications via SMS

The incumbent in this regard is clear – as we speak, thousands of SMS messages are being sent to customers to notify them of new orders and deliveries. Not only is it the channel of choice, it also best fits the concise nature of transactional messages and boasts extremely high read rates. Furthermore, rapidly evolving e-commerce systems mean that online customer identification is increasingly tied to unique phone numbers, which SMS serves as a natural extension to.

How to lower the costs of SMS in e-commerce?

Using a comprehensive SMS-based communications solution such as SMSEagle Hardware SMS Gateway, retailers can reap great cost savings by investing in a single hardware rather than subscribing to a PAYG model, while leveraging lower rates provided by local SIM cards. It also offers multiple useful features including phonebooks, message templates and Email to SMS, where retailers who choose to ping customers via email can now extend this effortlessly to SMS messages.

From-store-to-door messaging

Every purchase begins with placing an order. Whether customers order in-store or online, they want to be assured that their order has been received and processed. By connecting e-commerce systems such as Amazon Seller Central to the SMSEagle SMS Gateway via third-party automation tools such as Zapier, retailers can notify customers every time a new sales order is placed, with SMS messages automatically sent to the customer’s phone number. This can include a wide range of order information such as the expiry date for a subscription, or expected delivery times and tracking updates.

Achieve the highest open-ratio

According to ezyCollect, it takes up to five reminders to achieve a 96% rate on bill settlement, clearly indicating the importance of SMS communications in ensuring high payment rates. Retailers can use SMS to not just deliver invoices and statements, but to also send payment reminders. They can leverage SMSEagle’s ready-to-use APIs for integration into any accounting software, where such reminders can be programmed based on the billing cycle. For invoicing, they can integrate for example with Zoho Inventory (via Zapier) to trigger an SMS whenever a new invoice is created. This can be used for content subscriptions, postpaid plans, utility services and even credit repayments.

Thank you for shopping with us!

With m-commerce continuing to flourish, user identification increasingly relying on mobile identities, and the need to engage customers more pronounced than ever, SMS has never been a better channel for order communications and billing reminders. SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway makes this simple and cost-effective with its range of ready-to-use APIs, local charges and bulk messaging capabilities, empowering retailers regardless of their existing systems, offerings and size.

Create the right solution for your business!

Your obstacles are unique, and the solutions for them should be too. The functions of SMSEagle allows businesses to incorporate SMS communications into their systems in a way that makes sense to them. To find out how, get in touch with our team.

Mission Possible: Connecting Citizens, First Responders and Critical Operations with SMS

Mission critical systems underpin operations and industries that form the essential backbone of economies and governments. Notable examples include first responders such as the police, firefighters and paramedics, as well as sectors such as the utilities and railway. Nevertheless, these systems are susceptible to various performance, operational and security issues, requiring real-time communications to ensure that the slightest disruption can be addressed and mitigated in time.

As critical operations tend to be sparse and may sometimes involve thousands of personnel, detecting and communicating issues within these environments can be an uphill task. In the case of first responders, for example, army personnel, firefighters and emergency workers may need to be deployed at a plane crash site within minutes, involving the coordination of many different teams and departments.

Given that all critical operations are essentially ‘critical’, and most often happen in scenarios where default networks such as the Internet may not be the fastest, safest and most easily available option, SMS offers a superior communications method that ensures immediate reach, boasting not only high read rates but also an omnipresent channel that is accessible to all.

Integrating in-silo response systems into a single communications channel

For large scale operations involving multiple taskforces or units, SMS can address a fragmented communications framework where proprietary and disparate radio networks are used by different teams, resulting in delays and miscommunications. SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway, for example, addresses this by integrating all touchpoints involved in a critical mission into its database of recipients, allowing key updates and commands to be broadcasted to everyone involved. This enables operations to be scaled accordingly, with messages cascaded quickly to team members, for example the entire field force of a power plant.

In the case of IoT and IIoT, sensors and third party devices linked to SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway can enable the real-time monitoring of critical facilities such as nuclear plants and oil rigs. For example, routine power grid inspections and monitoring of metro trains can leverage SMS-based communications to enable sensors to deliver operational logs to the controlling unit on information such as transmission load or journey times. Likewise, operational and maintenance updates can be sent to the team on the ground and also relayed to the sensors directly via SMS. SMS-based surveillance and management also helps in detecting disasters such as fires. For example, the SMSEagle integration plugin with AVTECH Room Alert or Pfau LISA enables fire and rescue departments to detect fires and floods in real-time where sensors alert them via automated SMS notifications. Where advanced API-based application links are in place, these notifications can be returned with automated responses that trigger, for example, connected sprinklers or water pumps to turn on automatically.

Keeping everyone informed

SMS plays another key role in mission critical communications. It enable vital instructions and information to reach the most affected parties – the victims. Using dedicated SMS channels, victims can send messages to first responders and establish communications where all other means of reaching out are exhausted. For example, first responders can get in touch with members of a local community during a breakout of a pandemic. Likewise, in the case of a heist where residents are locked up in an apartment or dormitory, solutions such as SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway provide a ready means for passing updates and keeping the victims informed, and also enable critical information provided by a single victim to be looped back into the system and broadcasted to all other victims affected by the same emergency.

SMS on a mission

SMS messaging via SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway not only makes the most out of existing cellular infrastructure and investments, but provides an easy to integrate, forward solution that is compatible with automated response systems and is highly configurable to the needs of any critical mission.

Create the right solution for your operation

Your obstacles are unique, and the solutions for them should be too. The functions of SMSEagle allow critical operations units to incorporate SMS communications into their systems in a way that makes sense to them. To find out how SMSEagle will allow you to create the solution you need, get in touch with our team.

Acing School Communications with SMS

Critical weather updates sent over email and contest invitations pinned on bulletin boards are just a few of the many communication mistakes schools tend to make in delivering important information to parents. When it comes to school communications, traditional methods like these are losing their appeal. Schools need an alternative that is both cost-efficient and can get the attention of parents immediately. Even dedicated school websites and information portals do not fit the bill – parents hardly have the time to check their emails, let alone updates published on obscure third party platforms.

Another message from school

School communications encompass a diverse range of matters, from trivial updates such as open days and carnivals to critical alerts such as floods and disease outbreaks. With 55% of K-12 parents preferring texting over other channels, SMS messaging offers schools the best of both worlds by combining speed and scalability. SMS can be used for both regular and critical updates, boasting minimal costs, higher reach and substantially higher read rates.

The many types of communications

SMS is the perfect tool for one-to-one, one-sided notifications such as reminders to pick up children after class. SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway can be used for example, to inform parents that registration for a karate classes has been completed or that the child has successfully enrolled into a chess competition. This enables SMS to become an integral part of the student registration pipeline, removing the need for third-party platforms which are often deployed to track enrolments. By linking up student data apps such as with the SMSEagle gateway, notifications are automatically triggered every time a new record is added.

Broadcast of critical alerts

SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway broadcast service can provide crucial security and safety for schools. Emergencies such as a fire breakout, an armed attack or a sudden snow storm can be communicated to all parents at once, along with safety instructions and other important information. This prevents miscommunications during hours of panic and removes potential mishaps. SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway can also serve as an internal broadcast tool, keeping teachers and school staff informed whenever typical loudspeaker and traditional bell messages fail to reach them.

Last minute notices

SMS communications supports unlimited recipients and allows last minute notices and updates to reach students and parents in any location reliably and punctually. Integrated with the school’s student database, it can be used for fast reach to different recipient classes for customized messages and targeted communications. Schools can alert parents of upcoming events, remind them of school breaks, holidays and results collection days.

Given its scalability, cost effectiveness and easy-to-deploy form factor, any school can benefit from SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway. All a school needs is a single hardware and a local SIM to set up a reliable and robust medium of communication that can greatly alleviate their administrative burden while keeping parents and students well informed.

Create the right solution for your school

Your obstacles are unique, and the solutions for them should be too. The functions of SMSEagle allow schools to incorporate SMS communications into their systems in a way that makes sense to them. To find out how, get in touch with our team.

SMSEagle NXS-9700-4G & NXS-9750-4G Receive PTCRB Approval and AT&T Certification

Poznań, Poland, October 24th, 2022 – Proximus Sp. z o.o., the leading manufacturer of hardware SMS gateways under the SMSEagle brand, announced that NXS-9700-4G and NXS-9750-4G devices have received the PTCRB Certificate of Compliance which recognizes the devices as meeting the requirements of the PTCRB Certification Program and are ready for deployment on AT&T’s 4G network in the United States.

„PTCRB defines the test requirements to verify compliance with global industry standards for wireless cellular devices. Member operators are committed to ensuring device quality through a rigorous certification process. The PTCRB certification program provides confidence that devices conform with global standards and perform optimally on mobile wireless networks.” (source: PTCRB website)

About SMSEagle

SMSEagle is a professional hardware SMS/MMS gateway for sending and receiving SMS/MMS messages. The device is designed with focus on reliability and stability. Messages are sent/received directly to/from cellular network without using any external 3rd party solutions. The device has a range of built-in plugins that enable additional functionalities and easy to use API for integration with external applications.

Powering Public Sector Communications with SMS

When one thinks of internal government communications, several legacy systems come to mind. Memos. Pagers. Fax. Noticeboards.

Acknowledged as archaic and ineffective, many administrative bodies across the world have begun to phase these out in favour of newer technologies. Much like regular enterprises, when it comes to selecting the right communication channel, the emphasis is often on accessibility, prevalence as well as efficiency and reliability. For the public sector, another important consideration that often weighs in on these decisions are data protection laws and confidentiality. Combined, these requirements render popular means of communication such as emails and chat apps unfitting, leaving employees to grapple with chunky proprietary communication systems that are difficult to access, use or integrate.

Boasting unparalleled accessibility and reach, SMS messaging presents the public sector with a great alternative to these systems. Delivered over cellular networks, SMS messages are able to reach all types of mobile devices and Internet-inaccessible areas. With read rates of over 90%, they make a good fit for critical operations and important announcements.

To meet public sector requirements, however, SMS communication must be supported by a solution that ensures data sovereignty and confidentiality. This is where SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway comes in. As hardware that is deployed on-premises, government and public sector departments have full control over their communications gateway. Without having to connect to the Internet, SMSEagle SMS Gateway is shielded from cyber-threats. With all data stored locally in a secure relational database, the gateway is especially useful where employees are required to maintain communication records.

Breaking the rules: SMS for government organizations

Whether it is healthcare information or identity records, government data is often strewn across various repositories which make information retrieval an arduous process. By connecting internal applications to the SMSEagle API, important information can be sent via SMS to employees requesting it. By putting automated systems in place, employees can request, for example, updates on status reports by simply sending a code such as YES to a particular SMSEagle number.

Given that there are plenty of locations with cellular connectivity but no Internet, SMS messaging makes a good fit for remote operations such as wildlife preservation or rural development. Alerts can be sent via SMSEagle SMS Gateway to many employees all at once, notifying them of, for example, a reported illegal logging activity. This can be extended to field workers who cannot attend to desktop applications for updates, and regular employees who share similar tasks but are geographically dispersed – for updates on shift schedules, submission deadlines or requests for meetings.

Being able to deliver timely alerts makes SMS an apt means for critical communications. During emergencies, SMSEagle SMS Gateway is able to disseminate critical information instantaneously, and keep planned actions confidential so that internal efforts are not undermined by malicious third parties. Furthermore, during disasters such as floods or fires, other forms of connectivity are likely to go down, leaving SMS as the only available solution.

Accelerating digital government transformation

Public sector communications can greatly benefit from SMS. SMSEagle SMS/MMS Gateway in particular, is easy to understand and deploy and can be used by any department or unit. It enables the public sector to leverage existing mobile infrastructure and advancements in digital applications to deliver real-time communications – routine, strategic or critical – to keep their teams connected and their services running excellently.

Create the right solution for your operation

Your obstacles are unique, and the solutions for them should be too. The functions of SMSEagle allow government and other organizations to incorporate SMS communications into their systems in a way that makes sense to them. To find out how SMSEagle will allow you to create the solution you need, get in touch with our team.